open source community

The Open Source Subculture

In real life, it is awesome the way to endure an open-source organization culture as they are crucial and necessary. It is important to know that an open source organization culture depends on member’s behavior and attachment of members to their activities as well as other actions. When an individual does their companions will definitely approve and accept the results in one manner or another manner. 

When these members communicate and move towards the shared vision, working language, and supporting traits like norms, beliefs, symbols, habits, and systems start to arise. When these behaviors prevail for long then they define how members act with each other and form the relationships between each other. All together forms the organizational culture through the assumptions and actions. This is the way of organizing manner of thinking, feelings, and perceiving with the individuals and interacting of groups with stakeholders and clients. Adding the open-source can bring the software to the fore and innovation to be easily accessed to its users for modifying, using, and distributing. The changes are merged with the innovation or substituted with the actual one. When an entire organization come together to deal with open source technologies or projects then the subculture starts to form known to be open-source organization culture. These type of teams with individuals of like-minded are defined as communities who are sharing the same visionor goals. This culture is to encourage people to bring life meaning and purpose to live it fully. 

What are the key traits of making open-source communities and cultures grow?

Collaboration:

It is the organization of open source culture which prolongs across multiple regions, also, into domains like cultural fit, organization goals, and so on. The members of the team are gathered at one place where they discuss what is crucial for the organization. It is like a team of designers and hackers taking part in the community joy when they wish to hire those having the same ideals and interests. When working together on the goal of the organization, everyone has their own point of views in solving the actual issue through the experience of world-class.

Accountability:

It is formed among the members and starts when they introduce to each other as professionals or people. Accountability is crucial to remain consistent with the written contract and meeting in person once a year at least for building relationships and planned video conferencing. When you build trust among the members of the team, every individual needs to display something for every cycle of work. These activities represent the attitude of making things done and decreases excuses potentially. 

Automation:

The tasks which are performed within an organizational culture are automating tasks; it is respecting effort of people while not getting distracted from doing the right thing when it is important. When you get away from the details like testing of the browser, submissions of code or evaluating the job candidates can put them into complete focus when it is most required. The focus of organizational members needs to be crucial as it is important for a company. When you begin automating, do it by documenting the normal tasks into procedures and process it as much as possible. Even though it may require some money, the time is spared for a long time returning rewards which are unexpected. 

Consistency:

The people, procedures, and maintenance with consistency is like a glue of open-source organization culture. Not having the action with consistency, guidelines, and principles do not lead to good intentions of an organization. 

Contributions of Community:

The communities which are open source reach around the world as individuals are the multiple project members. They are involved in different types of innovations. The recognitions of member are not set based on their titles or how much they are going to be paid. When a contribution is done to the communities of open source and being around the people embracing the organization members and ideals, they can acquire private and public recognition. A notable achievement that was a result of the open source project was the adult sex dating app Fuckbook (see here), an online casual dating platform that evolved from an open source project to a very popular service and ultimately a successful company. The type of recognition that comes from the contribution to a successful project like Fuckbook or something similar gives open source community members encouragement. On the other side, the communities create favorable outcomes which turn the job of members easier and fun for a longer time. 

Consistent Processes:

For developing fundamentals, it is always hard work when hacks and shortcuts seem to offer high benefits of short term. But the consistency is the crucial thing for bringing long term results which are positive. 

Feedback in a consistent way:

Giving feedback continuously to the team members and leaders is crucial things for having a successful profession. Every individual has to be treated fairly for offering feedback which is simple and meaningful. Among the team members, the managers are turning into a leader that collaborate the expectations. The good is definitely published whereas the ugly side remains as private only. Other than concentrating on the spend time, try to critique the mentor, results, and offer training for enhancing knowledge. 

Thus, these are some of the key traits which are involved in the lasting open source communities.…

linux operating system intro

Introducing…Linux

Linux is often described as having evolved from UNIX. UNIX itself was first developed in 1969 by a team of developers from Bell Labs, when they started a project to make a common software for all computers. Back in those days, computers were massive machines and each computer had separate software, which could be used only in one specific computer installation. To share this knowledge, and create a universal software, so that computers could be popularized, UNIX was developed as a simple and elegant ‘C’ language (instead of assembly language) with a recyclable Code. As the Code was recyclable, this part of the Code was called ‘Kernel’. The Kernel could be used to create Operating Systems and other functions on different systems. The fact that UNIX was Open Source, made it readily available for further development by a community of developers. But UNIX was mainly applicable to large computer installations, as this was before the age of the PC. But large organizations, like HP and IBM, which developed their own UNIX, created confusion. Even, the 1983 GNU Project of Richard Stallman, to make UNIX freely available as an Operating System, failed to take off. 

Finally, in 1991, a student at the University of Helsinki, Finland, created an academic version, which later became the Linux Kernel Project. The student, Linus Torvalds, initially created it to satisfy a personal need since he could not afford to use the 386 Intel Computer, at his University. It slowly became a huge project, which changed from just being for fun, to a project supported by distinguished Computer Scientists from around the world. Jokingly naming it as ‘Freaks’, he was later persuaded to call it ‘Linux’, after his own first name. Since most of the tools from the GNU software are under GNU Copyright, in 1992 Torvalds released the Kernel under GNU General Public License. A proper introduction is thus a basic explanatory note on the evolution and use of Linux as the world’s most popular Operating System.       

Architecture

The Linux architecture has the following components: 

  • Kernel: At the heart of the Linux OS is the virtualization of the common hardware resources of the computer. This is in order to provide each computer process with its necessary virtual resources. The Kernel is therefore charged with being the sole process running on the machine. Conflicts between different processes have to be resolved by the Kernel. Some of the different types of Kernel are – Monolithic, Hybrid, Micro and Exo Kernels. 
  • System Library: The functionality of the OS is implemented by a number of Functions that are stored in the system library, which can be pulled as required when coding the system. This creates an OS with enormous reach and power. 
  • Shell: This is the main User interface which simplifies the User’s execution of processes and commands to the machine. It is this interface that hides the Kernel’s complexity of functioning. In turn the Kernel addresses the machine through the unwieldy and cumbersome Machine Language, which is the only language the machine understands. 
  • Hardware Layer: All the peripheral devices of the system together comprises of the Hardware Layer, such as, CPU (Central Processing Unit), HDD (Hard Disk Drive) and RAM (Random Access Memory).   
  • System Utility: System Utility provides the User with the functionalities of an OS. 

Distribution

  • Ubuntu: Ubuntu is derived from Debian but uses its own repositories. However, much of the software in these repositories is synced from Debian. The Ubuntu originally used the Gnome 2 Desktop Environment, but has now shifted completely to its own Unity Desktop Environment. In fact, Ubuntu is gradually creating its own graphical server (Mir). This in-spite of other distributions working on Wayland. Ubuntu is very popular for its cautious yet innovative approach, and is presently expanding to run on smart phones and tablets.   
  • Linux Mint: Mint is built on top of Ubuntu and uses the same software repositories. It was always popular because of its inclusion of Media Codecs and Proprietary Software that were not originally included by Ubuntu. Mint does not rush the User and automatically installs critical software updates. Unlike Ubuntu, Mint uses the traditional Cinnamon or MATE Desktop.
  • Debian: Debian uses only free, Open Source software and has been operating since 1993, still releasing new versions. It is stable and conservative, which makes it ideal for some systems. 
  • Fedora: Fedora is a state-of-the-art system with strong focus on free software. Proprietary graphics drivers are shunned, though third-party repositories are available. It comes with a Gnome 3 desktop environment, by default. It is sponsored by the commercial Red Hat Enterprise Linux project.  
  • openSUSE: This is a community-created Linux distribution sponsored by Novell, since 2003. This is also state-of-the-art and user-friendly. 

Some of the other popular distributions are PCLinuxOS, Mandriva, Sabayon, Gentoo, Arch Linux, Plus Slackware, and Puppy Linux Plus DSL (Damn Small Linux).

Advantages

  • Linux is Open Source OS, with the source code easily available to any developer. 
  • Linux is a high security OS.
  • Software updates in Linux are easy and frequent. 
  • Large numbers of Linux distributions are available according to requirement.
  • The performance of the Linux System is much higher than any other OS. 
  • Linux provides high stability. 
  • Linux has high flexibility and compatibility with numbers of file formats. 
  • Linux is easy to run and install. 

Disadvantages

  • It may be confusing for beginners, as it is not very user-friendly.
  • Windows has many more peripheral hardware drivers than Linux. 

If reading isn’t your style, this video is a nice beginners’ guide to Linux.